Indian Society of Genetics & Plant Breeding

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COMPOSITE-CROSSING METHODOLOGY PAYS RICH DIVIDEND IN COTTON BREEDING-A RESUME

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The paper summarises results of two decades (1969-1988) of successful cotton breeding
(Gossypium hirsutum L. and G. barbadense L.) done by the author, using the composite
breeding methodology. The elements of technology include: identifying high general
combininglinesfor yield, bolls/plant, boll weight, lintout-tum, superiorfibre quality from
top-cross testing, using a double cross varietal hybrid as the pollen source, crossing the
selected lines in numerous combination, composite-crossing between the resultant hybrids
bymixing pollen from all the hybrids, raising extensive progenies (20,000 plants) from such
composite crosses, selecting superior recombinant segregates and mating them again
through composite-crossing over 3-4 cycles, followed by 2 to 7 cycles of inter se mating
within the family. The results were highly gratifying. Numerous high yielding lines were
developed and a few released for commercial cultivation (e.g. JK 97, Sharada-multiple
pest-resistant rainfed cotton; Abadhita-bollwonn. aphid and jassid resistant irrigated
cottonJK119)combiningdesirable traits. The varieties have givensignificant jump in yield
(70-100% over checks), shortened crop duration (lSO-15~days, checks 200-210 days), high
boll weight (10.6 g, check 3.8 g) high lint per cent (39-420/., check 34.5%) multiple
pest-resistance (resistant to jassids, aphids, bollworms, stem weevil, red spider and
whitefly) wide adaptability across agroclimatic zones of India. Single stem, short-branch
lines maturing in 130-135 days, suitable for high density planting and machine picking
giving 106% higher yield and 45-47% lint out-tum are undergoing multilocation testing
across the Nation. The G. barbadense variety DCS 23-18-7 giving 70-100% higher yield over
the check. Suvin, shorterin maturity and having excellent fibre quality, is undergoing final
testing before release. Varieties JK-119 and DCS 23-18-7 have produced15-24% higheryield
than DCH-32 hybrid cotton with matching fibre quality.
 

Keywords: Composite-crossing, combining ability, quantum jump, adaptability, multiple pest-resistance.

Info

Year: 1995
Volume: 55
Issue: 3
Article DOI: NA
Print ISSN: 0019-5200
Online ISSN: 0975-6906

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